Monday, July 20, 2009

14 Unique Biomedical Homepages

Using search engines alone may not often turn in enough information when searching the Internet. This could be frustrating for an inexperienced information seeker. Even if the information is available, the results turned out by the search engine could be too many to sift through. This may not be compatible with the limited time at the disposal of an administrator or manager in the health sector who have many tasks to perform.
My aim in this article is to point your attention to an uncommon tool for seamless access to information on the Internet. You do not need additional software to access this section of the Internet as is the case for pdf documents whereby you must install the acrobat reader on your system.
There are great experts in your field who have acquired rare experience over the years in their chosen fields of interest. To help upcoming, young professionals, these experts has organized their works in the form of a ready-made website where you’ll learn about them and their research works and relevant references. They have outlined links to other sites which they have used to achieve stardom over the years. Here is where you have the information gold. The easy solution to your information seeking adventure could be on the links in their sites which are very rich in professional research works and references.
The following personal home pages in the biomedical field could be of great use and compliments to your search engine when searching the Internet for information:




The beauty of going to these personal home pages is that you will get other websites you may never find in the results turned out by your favourite search engine. You can always get recent updates on professional issues on these home pages. For example, the following sites are available at EdUthman personal home page:
(1) Medical Books:
(2) Nutrients
(3) Labmedicine
(4) Biomed History
(5) Labexplorer
(6) MMWR

Other biomedical home pages that could be of interest to you are listed below:
· Lou Caruana , CLS Program, Southwest Texas State University, San Marcos, TX, USA. LOU CARU

· Rosemarie Cunningham , who retired from MLS, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada in 1997 but still helps us out, being the great colleague that she is. ROSE CUNNING

· Mike Garbutt , MLS graduate of the University of Alberta, works at the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control (LCDC) in Winnipeg, MB, Canada.

· Akio Hasegawa , Dept. of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Odawara Municipal Hospital, Odawara, Japan.


· Karen Kiser , instructor in the Clinical Laboratory Technology/Phlebotomy program at St. Louis Community College at Forest Park, St. Louis, Missouri, USA. DAREN KISER

· Terry Kotrla , Professor in the Medical Laboratory Technology Program and Program Director of the Phlebotomy Technician Program at Austin Community College in Austin, Texas, USA.

· Neil K. Lalach , a technologist in Kelowna, BC, Canada.


· Peter A. Letendre

· Gary Lum , Clinical Microbiologist, Director of Microbiology and Pathology, Royal Darwin Hospital, Darwin, Northern Territories, Australia :

· Andrew Lyon ,clinical biochemist at Calgary Laboratory Services and the Dept. Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

· Benard Solomon: medical laboratory scientist, Histopathology Department, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Kwara State, Nigeria.

Benard Solomon

Monday, June 8, 2009

About Mesothelioma

Mesothelioma: Questions and Answers
Mesothelioma is a rare form of cancer in which malignant (cancerous) cells are found in the mesothelium, a protective sac that covers most of the body's internal organs. Most people who develop mesothelioma have worked on jobs where they inhaled asbestos particles.

What is the mesothelium?

The mesothelium is a membrane that covers and protects most of the internal organs of the body. It is composed of two layers of cells: One layer immediately surrounds the organ; the other forms a sac around it. The mesothelium produces a lubricating fluid that is released between these layers, allowing moving organs (such as the beating heart and the expanding and contracting lungs) to glide easily against adjacent structures.

The mesothelium has different names, depending on its location in the body. The peritoneum is the mesothelial tissue that covers most of the organs in the abdominal cavity. The pleura is the membrane that surrounds the lungs and lines the wall of the chest cavity. The pericardium covers and protects the heart. The mesothelial tissue surrounding the male internal reproductive organs is called the tunica vaginalis testis. The tunica serosa uteri covers the internal reproductive organs in women.

What is mesothelioma?

Mesothelioma (cancer of the mesothelium) is a disease in which cells of the mesothelium become abnormal and divide without control or order. They can invade and damage nearby tissues and organs. Cancer cells can also metastasize (spread) from their original site to other parts of the body. Most cases of mesothelioma begin in the pleura or peritoneum.

How common is mesothelioma?

Although reported incidence rates have increased in the past 20 years, mesothelioma is still a relatively rare cancer. About 2,000 new cases of mesothelioma are diagnosed in the United States each year. Mesothelioma occurs more often in men than in women and risk increases with age, but this disease can appear in either men or women at any age.

What are the risk factors for mesothelioma?
Read On

Monday, May 25, 2009

24 Best International Medical Laboratory Resources

On the internet, it is very difficult to find a one-stop box for best online resources in medical laboratory.
In order to eliminate this limitation and open up a window of opportunity for you to explore hidden resources you never knew existed guaranteed to exite your mind and in an amazing presentation, here is a revelation of 24 international medical laboratory resources you cannot afford to ignore.

1. Pat Letendre Medical Laboratory Science: Here is the resoures that gave me the needed break on the internet. It is full of professional stuffs and internet skills. You can be sure to get fresh knowledge from Pat's site whenever you visit.

2. Association of Clinical Biochemistry, United Kingdom: Here are the resources for chemistry inclined professional in the field. You'll find hidden secrets top professionals in the field implement.

3. Canadian Society For Medical Laboratory Science:Looking for opportunity to work in Canada? All the info you need is found here. A lot of help is available on qualification and certification matters.

4. Clinical Laboratory Science Distance Learning-This is the place of choice for quality bachelor of science degree in laboratory science.

5. University Of Cincinati-If you wish to earn quality degree on laboratory science, this is the right place to go.

6. The Academy Of Laboratory Science: It is the professional body for medical scientists in Ireland.


8. American Society For Clinical Laboratory Science-This is the preeminent organisation for the practice of clinical laboratory science in America

9. International Federation Of Biomedical Science-This is the international gateway for all medical laboratory science associations. Sign up for membership is easy and qualifies you to receive regular update through newsletter.
Biomedical Science Federation


11. Califonia Blood Banking Society-Highly recommended for haematologists. You can't beat this great resource centre.

12. Associaton of Genetic Technologists-Here you have information on genetics.

13. Society Of Medical Clinical Laboratory Professionals in Italy-Multi-professional society regulated by government in Italy

14. American Medical Technologist-This is the certification body for American Technologists. Current membership is 41,000. INSTANT ACCESS HERE

15. Japanese Association of Medical Technologists- Discover all resources in medical laboratory practice in Japan CLICK HERE TO ACCESS NOW

16. American Society Of Cytotechnology: Provides unique educational opportunities in cytotechnology FIND DETAILS HERE

17. Italian Society Of Clinical Biochemistry-Find out the Italian connection in laboratory practice CLICK HERE NOW

18. Dr. Loius Caruana's Home Page: The one resource gateway for smart professionals MEET DR. LOUIS HERE

19. The Public Health laboratory: The best resource in public health laboratory DIG DEEPER

20. SARS Laboratory And Specimen Information: The International guideline for handling and testing SARS by CDC DISCOVER IT HERE

21. Basic Laboratory Protocols For Bacillus Antrancis. DOWNLOAD NOW

22. Laboratory Protocols For Bioterrorism Agents:

23. Lecture Notes On Antrax With Pictures

24. Society Of Medical Lab Technologists in Sounth Africa: ENTER NOW

Tuesday, May 19, 2009

Free Top 8 Biomedical Magazines

Besides journals and other periodicals, the place of biomedical magazines is never to be ignored in the quest for knowledge and keeping current in your field. You can build great and wide network of friendship and professionals using the power of biomedial magazines.

There are certain emerging fields you never knew existed before. You can create a permanent link with fresh information by simply identifying a biomedical magazine of choice and subcribing for it most importanly when it is available Free.

These Top Eight Biomedical Magazines are worth exploring for up-to-date biomedical information sometimes hard-to-come-by.

1. Nature Biotechnology: Devotes pages specifically to in-depth analysis of issues concerning biotechnology intellectual property case law and..

2. Genetic Engineering And Biotechnology News: Is dedicated to biotech news, from bench to business, and was introduced in 1981 as the first..

3. BioOptics World Magazine: Focuses on the design, development, and utilization of optical technologies for the study, diagnosis, and treatment..

4. Pharmaceutical Tehcnology: Is a publication providing practical information on pharmaceutical manufacturing...

5. Biotechnology Healthcare:Features the impact of biologics on health, business and benefits, delivering high interest articles and features..

6. Sp2......Fulfills the needs of the global pharmaceutical and biotechnology community with its highly regarded editorial coverage of industry news..

7.FierceBiotech: Is a free, easy to read daily email service that brings must read biotechnology news to senior executives in the biotech..

Get Your Free Subscription Here

8. Medical Laboratory Observer:This magazine prides in being refered to as the 'peer reviewed Lab Management Resource Since 1969'. Yes. It is a publication that has been on for quite sometime now and you trust the editors: they are highly dedicated to specialized information that will keep you ahead of others.
Subcribe Here

Monday, May 11, 2009

Best Transfusion Science Resources

This resource I am about revealing to you cuts across every profesion which has anything to do with blood transfusion be it doctors, nurses, medical laboratory scientists and others. So if you are searching blood transfusion resources online, it is where to start. Experienced experts mobilized to share what they have got over the years with you so as to make things very easy for you.

If you have professors teaching you and dishing out stuffs you want you would appreciate it but that cannot be enough for a highly motivated student who want to get everything from the highly exposed expert. Apart from the teachings, you'll also want the books and materials he/she reads. You'll want to know how conected he is and those who have contributed immensely to his/her rise over the years to make him what he is professionally and in this case blood transfusion science.

Knowing fully well that it is important to reach a global audience, the expert behind this powerful resource launched a website to make the resources universal.Welcome to the traqprogram-The best online resources on blood transfusion. You can receive updates in your mail box.
Click Here Now For Quick Access

Monday, May 4, 2009

Top 20 Highly Rated Biomedial Sites

Time is golden. You don't want to waste it for anything in this world. Top flight professionals in the medical field value time and are ready to pay any price to maximize their use of time.
The wonder of the internet is no more news but what has not been emphasized all these days is the time wasting potential of the Internet.
Looking for biomedical information on the internet could take a toll on your health after wasting your time. But you'll never be satisfied until you get the required information to solve your problem.
As I was searching for the top highly rated biomedical sites online, setting a querry at google brought a hit of 42, 400,000 sites. That's too much for the limited time available.
It will be a daunting task to sift all those sites. In the end you may still find junks among those.
If you are looking for valuable medical information sites on the internet, here are the top 20 biomedical sites on a single page for quick access. It makes your information hunting escapade so simple and fast:

1. WEBMD provides a wealth of health information and tools for managing your health from an award-winning Website, which is continuously reviewed for accuracy and timeliness.

2. HEALTHCENTRAL HealthCentral provides a collection of Websites providing trusted medical information from doctors, researchers and expert patients, as well as news, information, video and other multi-media content on health related subjects

3. WRONGDIAGNOSIS is one of the world’s leading providers of online medical health information. The site is an independent, objective source of factual, mainstream health information for both consumers and health professionals















18. US-MD



With those information at your disposal you can move fast to acquire health information to suite your divergent needs.

You can also quickly access them on this single page:


















18. US-MED



Friday, April 17, 2009

Advance Mag For Medical Laboratory Professionals

If you have a single information resource that tells you everything about your profession what would you naturally do? Do everything possible to have access to it of course.
That's what I did several years ago when the dearth of information of globla standard for medical laboratory professionals hit me badly. I wanted to be on top of my profession. I needed to learn from experts in my field who are doing exceptionally well. I thought so well and rightly too at that time that these experts must have some pubications they read regularly which others never have access to.
I wanted to crack the code. Along the line, I succeeded at getting one of my senior colleague resident in the United States to recommend his top 10 resources for me.

When I got the information, I quickly subcribed to it online. There is also the paid hard copy edition. The online copy is free but you must renew your subscription every year.

Advance magazine is a highly resourceful tool for professionals who aspire to be the best in their fields. Hot information on career path, financial empowerment and job opportunities plus lots more makes regular features in this high quality tabloid.

For instant access, CLICK HERE

Wednesday, April 8, 2009

Top 11 Medical Laboratory Resources

These resources conver health jobs in some African Countries like Namibia and other countries like New Zealand. Schorlaship opportunities to study abroad for undergraduate and graduate degrees are also highlighted. Hard to find forums that you’ll find beneficial are also posted.
· 1. Namibia, Health; jobs for medical laboratory scientists ,

Thursday, April 2, 2009

Opportunities In Medical Writing

The medical writing field is becoming explosive worldwide but without enough personnel. I first learnt about medical writing as an alternative career path for biomedical scientists and other professional in the medical field when doing a research work on freelance writing.
Although medical writing goes along with medical communications, the paucity of information on formal training and opportunities makes this post imperative to highlight basic information necessary to empower interested professionals with timely hints on this fast growing field.

This field seem to be highly developed in the United States which already formed the American Medical Writers Association. This Association offers basic certificate training in medical writing. You can check out more information on their website

The American Medical Writers Association sponsors several certificate programs and offers medical writing training at its annual meeting and through local chapter affiliates.

The University of the Sciences in Philadelphia is the only institution that offers an M.S. degree in medical writing. Also, James Madison University in Virginia created undergraduate and graduate program in technical and scientific communications. Rumor has it that a medical writing program is being organized at Maryland-based Towson University.

Great interest is currently being generated across the globe on this emerging career path. Trust that you'll get updated as the situation improves. If you are highly talented in writing and think you have all it takes to explore this opportunity, give it a shot.


Friday, March 27, 2009

Top Ten Biomedical Blogs

What is out there in the biomedical internet? Blogging is the new trend. It is as simple as keeping a journal. Wise biomedical experts has jumped on the train and what they are writing about is the focus of this post.

Let us know more about the top 10 biomedical internet blogs. Some of the blogs were published by biomedical experts while others have something to say about the biomedical field and the internet.

1. Gen2pen: This site freely offer information about biomedical internet researchers and contributors. Find out more at

2. Medical Blog Network: This is a research based blog that is concerned with health and community issues. Check it out at

3. Biomed Central Blog-Here is a hidden information for biomedial scientists who understand other languages besides english. It also provide employment opportunities to biomedical scientists who are good at writing and editing. This is an open door for freelance medical writers and bloggers. More information at

4. Biomedical Library Blog- Specialized information on biomedical library is made available on this site. It has been running since 2005 and the posts are well laid out in a well designed page. Check it out at

5. Biomedical Science Blog-This blog was set out to promote education and career development in biotechnology and biomedical related fields. Networking skills and job interview skills are well exposed in this blog. The webmaster skills of the publisher is highly encouraging as a biomedial scientist in the area of monetization.

Find out more at

6. Medical Writer-This blog copiously dish out hot information on the exploding field of medical writing. You may wish to freelance as a talented biomedical expert. Here is the blog to visit. It reveals opportunities you may never have heard of before. Go to

7. Biomedical Blog-This blog is everything you had wished to know about biomedical engineering. Design models and educational articles run copiously in its pages. Go to

8. Britanica Blog-This is about the race for biomedical and genetic enhancement. You can find interesting reserch on the future of genomic research.

9. Medical Research Blog- Here is the blog that reveals recent research topics in the biomedical field. What does vinegar has to do with post prandial glucose for example? Check it out and others at

10. Biojob Blog-BioJobBlogger offers services related to bioscience and biotech careers, pharmaceutical and science jobs. Also offering the services of science career development, biotech career development advice, regulatory compliance training and resume preparation.
Find more at

Monday, March 16, 2009

The Easiest Way To Get Biomedical Information

I have been digging and searching the internet to find out where one can get fast information on almost all the fields in the medical fraternity-I mean the biomedical world. Such site should provide useful information for professionals in the medical fields. There should be access to periodical news and publications. Those who want to shop for current books in their fields should have easy access to these kind of information in such site.

If one is thinking about linking up with professional bodies of interest world wide and associations in ones field, the site should provide quick information.

Yes I have found the site. It is

Talk about conferences and information about them, you'll get everything you need at hoslink. Suppliers of equipments and reagents in the medical fields display their wares here. It is so amazing. You may not get to appreciate my excitement about hoslink until you have been there. The content is super and captivating. It is my number 1 resource centre on biomedical information. Then what is next for you than to go to

Friday, February 27, 2009

Free Medical Journals

Have you ever tried to download a very important information on the internet only to discover to your surprise that you have to pay for the article for you to have access to it?
Some organisations and professionals believe that such information should be free. Anyway if that is not possible now, the future points to that. There is a powerful mobilisation going on to ensure that medical journals in all fields are free.
Meanwhile, it is my pleasure to introduce to you journals in the medical field you can enjoy for free.

The categories are:
1. Journals released for free

2. Free medical journals 1 to 6 months after publication

3. Free medical journals 1 year after publication

4. Free medical journals 2 years after publication.

Free On Publication

1. A cancer Journal For Clinicians-

2. The Journal of Clinical Investigation-

3. Nucleic Acid Research-

4. Biochemical Journal-

5. Emerging Infectious Diseases-

6. Journal of community Nursing-

Free 1 to 6 Months After Publication
1. New England Journal Of Medicine-

2. Diabetes (Free after 3 months)-

3. Molecular Biology of The Cell (Free after 2 months)-

4. Journal of Virology-

5. Journal of Clinical Microbiology-

6. Journal of Bacteriology-

7. Antimicrobial agents and Chemotherapy-

8. Diabetes Care-

Free 1 Year After Publication

1. British Medical Journal-

2. Molecular Pharmacology-

3. Laboratory Investigation-

4 Journal of Infectious Diseases-

5. Endocrinology-

Free 2 Years After Publication

Sunday, February 22, 2009

Immunohistochemistry Diagnoses Yesterday, Today And Tomorrow

The advent of Immunohistochemistry as a diagnostic tool in characterizing malignant tumours could be traced to the work of Coons and colleagues in 1942. They introducted immunofluorescence for the detection of antigens in frozen tissues.
In the early 1980’s , monoclonal antibodies became commercially available. This led to the science of antigen detection via visibly tagged antibodies through research which popularized immuno-histochemical applications in tissues though initial staining was weak due to the horseradish peroxidase enzyme detection system used then. The system was soon to be replaced by the more sensitive avidin-biotin system.
The visualization system with diaminobenzidine remain useful till today with some improvements with tyramide amplification. Tyramide is a highly sensitive polymer based labeling system.
In the early days, antibodies were only applied to frozen sections. No staining with formalin fixation was advisable.

It is pertinent to note that this revolutionary tumour diagnoses technique was widespread in Europe and America. Most countries in Africa was left behind including Nigeria. Very few research centers and Tertiary health centers knew about and used this technique.

In 1991, Shi etal discovered heat induced epitope retrieval (HIER) using microwave or pressure cooker along with a metal salt buffered solution. Modern histochemical staining depend largely on this work as more antigens could be detected on routine formalin fixed archive tissues. Staining time for most antigens was reduced. The need for frozen sections for lymphomas was eliminated with superior morphology.

The introduction of automation has now made it possible to standardize staining for quantitation though manual staining still subsists in most laboratories especially in Nigeria.. Automation has also made it possible to record the effect of fixation time on preservation of tissue antigen.

Specific examples of the impact of IHC in tumour diagnoses was summarized in a recent work by Jargidir etal. as follows:
‘The availability of immunostains for myoepithelium has helped delete breast diagnoses such as "highly suspicious for microinvasion" from our lexicon to the more definitive "microinvasion identified/not identified." In addition, the use of immunohistochemical markers in breast cancer has transformed pathology from simple diagnoses to predictive and prognostic necessities. Immunohistochemistry has assisted in guiding adjuvant therapy decisions and sentinel node staging; subtyping a carcinoma as ductal or lobular, basal (cytokeratin [CK] 5/6) or luminal; distinguishing invasive carcinoma from mimics; and establishing that a metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary site has originated in the breast or elsewhere. In the thyroid, CK19 has been considered a useful ancillary to diagnosing papillary carcinoma of thyroid especially in cytology specimens with a high sensitivity and specificity with the caveat that proper sample and controls need to be used when applying IHC to cytology. Another marker that is useful, although not sensitive and not entirely specific, in detection of thyroid malignancies, is HBME-1. HBME-1 detects an unknown antigen on micro-villi of mesothelioma cells and elsewhere.
Very few markers are specific to the lung and lung tumors. The best marker that we have now is thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), which is widely used in differentiating a lung primary from other neoplasms, including mesothelioma. However, it is not without its shortcomings and is close to desired specificity but lacks sensitivity, being absent or sparsely positive in poorly differentiated lung cancers and primary squamous cell carcinomas of the lung. Another promising marker on the horizon that appears to complement TTF-1 in detecting a lung primary is napsin A. In our study of more than 1000 carcinomas of diverse origin, we found that napsin A was complementary to TTF-1 in the detection of lung primary and more sensitive than TTF-1 (I. Sainz, P. T. Cagle, MD, J. Jagirdar, MD, unpublished data, September 2007). Napsin A is a functional aspartic proteinase that is expressed in the normal lung parenchyma in type II pneumocytes and in the proximal and convoluted tubules of the kidney. It is weakly expressed in pancreatic tumors and is well expressed in some renal tumors and thyroid carcinomas. Until now there were no good positive mesothelial markers, and a diagnosis of mesothelioma was one of exclusion and depended on having several negative epithelial markers. Now we have calretinin, which is the single best sensitive marker for mesothelial differentiation. The source of calretinin is important, with Zymed antibodies (Zymed Laboratories, South San Francisco, Calif) outperforming the others. Cytokeratin 5/6 is another positive marker for mesothelioma. The issue of separating benign mesothelial proliferation from mesothelioma still relies on morphology. However, it is aided by desmin, which is most frequently positive in benign mesothelial proliferations, whereas epithelial membrane antigen and p53 are positive in malignant ones.
Immunohistochemistry has proven to be a useful tool in the diagnosis of infectious diseases in tissue samples. It is especially useful in the identification of microorganisms that are present in low numbers, stain poorly, are fastidious to grow, are noncultivable, or exhibit an atypical morphology. A caveat to remember when staining pathogens is that there may be widespread occurrence of common antigens among bacteria and pathogenic fungi and both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies must be tested for possible cross-reactivity with other organisms. Examples of some newer pathogens that can be immunostained now are Hantavirus, parvovirus B19, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Candida, Aspergillus, and mycobacteria.
By using IHC in selected cases, the rate of false-negative and false-positive diagnoses can be reduced in the genitourinary tract, with some patients getting more specific or effective therapy. Prostate-specific antigen remains one of the best organ-specific markers with sensitivity available for the prostate. Uroplakin III is specific for terminally differentiated urothelial cells and is present in 60% of bladder cancers. α-Methylacyl CoA racemase (clone P504S) was identified using expression profiling and was found preferentially in prostatic carcinoma as compared with normal tissue. It is also positive in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and less commonly in nodular hyper-plasia, atrophic glands, and nephrogenic adenoma. Cocktails of high-molecular-weight keratin, keratin 903, p63 (a basal cell marker), and α-methylacyl CoA racemase is used in confirming a morphologic diagnosis of minimal prostatic carcinoma. In testicular tumors, hematopoietic marker CD30 is used to distinguish seminoma (except spermatocytic seminoma and intratubular germ cell tu-mor) and embryonal carcinoma from other germ cell tumors. In seminomas, the staining is focal. CD117, a trans-membrane tyrosine kinase receptor protein, is also strongly positive in seminoma as opposed to other nonsemino-matous germ cell tumors. Conversely, CAM 5.2 is positive in nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. Eighty-five percent of clear cell renal cell carcinomas are positive for CD10, another hematopoietic marker. Inhibin is a highly specific marker for ovarian and testicular sex cord tumors and a sensitive marker for adrenal cortical neoplasms.
By using IHC in selected cases, the rate of false-negative and false-positive diagnoses can be reduced in the genitourinary tract, with some patients getting more specific or effective therapy. Prostate-specific antigen remains one of the best organ-specific markers with sensitivity available for the prostate. Uroplakin III is specific for terminally differentiated urothelial cells and is present in 60% of bladder cancers. α-Methylacyl CoA racemase (clone P504S) was identified using expression profiling and was found preferentially in prostatic carcinoma as compared with normal tissue. It is also positive in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and less commonly in nodular hyper-plasia, atrophic glands, and nephrogenic adenoma. Cocktails of high-molecular-weight keratin, keratin 903, p63 (a basal cell marker), and α-methylacyl CoA racemase is used in confirming a morphologic diagnosis of minimal prostatic carcinoma. In testicular tumors, hematopoietic marker CD30 is used to distinguish seminoma (except spermatocytic seminoma and intratubular germ cell tu-mor) and embryonal carcinoma from other germ cell tumors. In seminomas, the staining is focal. CD117, a trans-membrane tyrosine kinase receptor protein, is also strongly positive in seminoma as opposed to other nonsemino-matous germ cell tumors. Conversely, CAM 5.2 is positive in nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. Eighty-five percent of clear cell renal cell carcinomas are positive for CD10, another hematopoietic marker. Inhibin is a highly specific marker for ovarian and testicular sex cord tumors and a sensitive marker for adrenal cortical neoplasms.
In soft tissue tumors, the characteristic translocation in Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor, t(11; 22)(q24;q12) involving Ewing sarcoma (EWS) gene on chromosome 22 and the FLI-1 gene on chromosome 11 results in overexpression of FLI-1 protein, which can be detected immunohistochemically in nuclei of ~70% of Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Another new abnormally expressed protein product of chromosomal aberration 2p23, ALK1(p80), is present in approximately 50% of pediatric inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors and in some other malignant soft tissue tumors. The staining is usually cytoplasmic in inflammatory myofi-broblastic tumor as opposed to nuclear and cytoplasmic in anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Alveolar soft part sarcomas are now theorized to be related to muscle tumors because of their desmin positivity. However, staining with newer muscle markers such has MyoD1 and myogenin are negative. Recently, a characteristic X:17 translocation has been identified in alveolar soft part sarcomas resulting in an ASPL-TFE3 fusion gene. Antibody TFE3 detects the presence of overexpressed gene product in alveolar soft part sarcomas. The same protein is also overexpressed in certain pediatric renal cell carcinomas.
Some liver lesions can be problematic. Differentiation between hepatic adenoma and focal nodular hyperplasia can be problematic and can now be aided by β-catenin, which is found in hepatic adenomas. Hepatocellular carcinomas can be distinguished from cirrhotic nodules and benign liver tumors with the aid of a new marker glypican 3. Hepar-1 is a liver-specific antigen that can be used in the context of hepatocellular carcinoma look-alikes such as renal cell carcinoma and adrenal carcinoma. However, it is not specific for the liver and must be used with a panel of markers. Distinguishing an appendiceal adeno-carcinoma from a colonic carcinoma is now possible via MUC5AC, which is positive in appendiceal carcinoma and not in colonic carcinoma, whereas β-catenin is negative in appendiceal lesions and almost always positive in colonic cancers. β-Catenin and villin are both highly unusual in ovarian mucinous carcinomas as compared with colonic mucinous carcinomas.
In summary, we will continue to make significant progress as more organ-specific markers emerge as a result of proteomics and genomics in conjunction with microar-rays’.
Outlook for the future tends toward evidence based meta analysis in conjuction with tissue microarrays. This is expected to facilitate rapid evaluation of antibody profiles on thousands of cases. It is also expected that the art of immunohistochemistry will develop into a full blown ‘science’..
References s
1. Coons AH, Creech HJ, Jones RN. Immunological properties of an antibody containing a fluorescent group. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1941;47:200.
2. Shi SR, Key ME, Kalra KL. Antigen retrieval in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues: an enhancement method for immunohistochemical staining based on microwave oven heating of tissue sections. J Histochem Cytochem. 1991;39:741-748.
3.Immunohistochemistry: Then and Now
Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine , Mar 2008 by Jagirdar, Jaishree

Monday, February 16, 2009

Post Graduate Education Opportunities For Biomedical Scientists

The crave for education worldwide is on the increase. Professionals from around the world seek continuous education opportunities to give their career advancement a filip and to enhance their knowledge and competence in a fast changing world.
The problem is that where to find these educational opportunities is hard to come by. Ready information is desperately needed to find Institutions that offers post-graduate education opportunities to Biomedical Scientists.
This guide is an attempt to solve this problem and make the information available at your finger tips.

Post Graduate Education Opportunities In The U.K.
These courses are accredited by the London Institute of Biomedical Science. You'll find full time and part time opportunities you may decide to enrol in. The contact addresses of resource persons are made available for easy follow up or query.
Information on courses from Institutions in U.K., Singapore, Canada, Australia, Ireland etc are included.

Go to

click here Now for Instant Download!

Monday, February 2, 2009

Pat Letendre Internet Search Secrets

Pat Letendre-Professor of Transfusion medicine and an internet expert shares her search strategies with you. Enjoy it.


1. Search Medline via PubMed

Below are notes on how to search PubMed and how to save searches for later updating.


Find terms using PubMed's MeSH browser. If MeSH terms do not fit well, use free-text keywords. Combine terms using boolean operator AND. Limit the search using one of PubMed "Search Field Descriptions and Tags," for example:

* english[la]
* editorial[pt]
* review[pt]
* 1999:2005[dp]
* vox sang[ta]
* Free Full Text [Filter] - see my On TraQ blog

If an author has written extensively on an issue, use something like 'heddle nm[au]' (e.g., for causes of non-hemolytic febrile transfusion reactions ) or 'judd wj[au]' (e.g., for appropriate serological testing). Limit the hits to the past 5 years (or shorter) using "Entrez Date limit." Take advantage of the "See related articles" option.

Sample search (try it on PubMed):

creutzfeldt-Jakob AND transfusion AND english[la] AND review[pt] AND 2004:2005[dp]


There are many options to save a search. The simplest is to choose the "Save Search" link near the top right beside the search boxes. You will have to register (it's free and easy). Once a search is saved you have an option to get updates sent to you by e-mail daily, weekly, etc.

Other choices are available using the "send to" drop-down box just above the list of "hits":

One is an RSS feed, which are easy to use if you have a gmail account. After you have perfected a search that you are interest in, click on the "SEND TO" drop-down box and select "RSS feed"; then limit your "hits" to 25, 50, whatever you want; and click on "create feed", then click on XML. You should now be able to choose Google as your reader. Then you log-in to your gmail account and the PubMed feed will be there.

If Google is not offered as a choice, copy the URL on this page, as it's the address of your search feed. The URL will look something like this:

Once in Google reader and logged in to your gmail account, select "add subscription", the paste the URL into the address box.

Once you have a gmail account and do this once it will be so easy the next time. Here are examples of PubMed RSS feeds that I did for TraQ:

* Nursing-related transfusion research
* Transfusion education

2. "Anchor" Websites

- Content-specific sites (sites likely to have the information) For example:

* Chagas - WHO and CDC
* vCJD - Br Med J
* With BMJ and many other journals you can ask to be alerted when new articles cite a a paper. You can link directly to Medline abstracts by the same author. Since the link takes you to PubMed, you have direct links to related Medline citations.

- Association sites (Associations) For example:

* AABB - SIGs (members only)
* CBBS - e-Network forum
* AACC - Clinical Laboratory News (interdisciplinary topics)
* CAP - benchmark surveys, CAP Today
* TraQ - Downloadable resources, regulatory, regional and international news in transfusion medicine

3. Online Journals (Journals)

Online journals may offer free full-text articles or only abstracts (to non-subscribers). Examples of free full-text journals:

* Arch Path & Lab Medicine
* Br Med J (partial)
* CAP Today

4. Electronic mailing lists (Lists)

For topics that may not have been published extensively or are practice-related, use mailing lists, preferably ones with subscribers who are experts in their fields.

* Apply the same critical analysis to list messages as you would to published papers, i.e., consider the author's credentials and experience and whether the advice is evidence-based or anecdotal.

MEDLAB-L: Because the list uses listserv software, archives are searchable by both author and keywords, a major advantage to a list for health professionals.

* Consider using private contacts from MEDLAB-L and other lists such as Canada's Transfusion Safety Officer mailing list ("transfusion")
* MEDLAB-L is a multi-discipline list with many knowledgeable experts as subscribers. For example, there are experienced pathologists, transfusion service medical directors, laboratory technologists, immunologists, toxicologists, microbiologists, LIS specialists, educators, etc.
* Private e-mail has the advantage of being able to make politically sensitive enquiries a more confidentially than on open forums such as the AABB SIGs.

5. Search engines (General - Medical - Specialty)

* Search the WWW using a few favorite search engines, e.g.,
o Google
o Google Scholar (see TraQ blogs)
o All the Web
* Read the Help files and use an advanced search mode if one exists.
* With some search engines try a straight question, e.g., "What is a prion?"
* Depending on the topic, try medical search engines such as MedHunt.

Several search engines allow restricting hits to educational, government, and other sites. For example, with Google's advanced search page, there is an option to return results only from a particular site or domain and to return pages that link to a particular site,

* Tip: If you get hits that are dead links, click on "cached" for Google's last saved page (may be outdated but tells you what was once there)

I also use the WWW extensively for interests such as travel. Accommodations for all recent holidays have been found on the Net.
Big Picture
This website with its organized links is my personal portal to the Web.

Sunday, January 18, 2009

How To Join And Use MEDLAB-List Discussion Group

MEDLAB-L is an internet mailing list for medical laboratory professionals in all disciplines. It is a forum for people who are associated with medical and related laboratories to share ideas and experiences, discuss mutual problems, offer advice, promote continuing education and network opportunities with international colleagues.
The list is owned by Professor Pat Letendre-a Medical Laboratory Scientist and specialist in transfusion science.

Understanding How MEDLAB-L Works

MEDLAB-L is an opt-in mailing list that uses Listserv software, a registered trademark. If you have had the priviledge to compile a bulky list of email addresses of your friends and colleagues at one time or the other, you will appreciate how difficult it is to manage multiple email addresses.
Popular email service providers like Yahoo and Gmail makes tool available in your inbox to send mail to restricted number of people. Google for example allow you to send mail to 500 people at once. Any figure beyond that will have to be queried and you must give reasons why your message should be sent to such large group of people. This is to ensure that those receiving your mail actually know you and that they really want to receive messages from you. This is the concept of opt-in(voluntary) mailing list.
MEDLAB-L through Listserv enables you as a potential user to voluntarily subscribe to the discussion group so that you can have access to multiple users across the globe.

How To Join and Post Message
In order to join the group and start benefiting from its services, you will need to get familiar with the command and address to use.
To subscribe, send a message that reads:
Subscribe MEDLAB-L Your Real Name (e.g. Benard Solomon) to
Immediately you send that message, confirmation email will be sent automatically to your email address. You will need to check your mail to complete the registration procedure. Such confirmation is to ensure your opt-in status.
After joining, you will start receiving discussion messages from the group.
For you to post any message, you will need to use the address

How To Participate Efficiently

Efficient participation demands that you get acquainted with the group’s commands. There is opportunity for you to search the database archives for past issues and how difficult problems were solved by experts in your field.
You are not expected to harvest addresses from MEDLAB-L for the purpose of sending mass commercial mails of any type.
When mentioning commercial products and services, you must provide your company affiliation in a signature.
Professional organizations and publishers who wish to publish information from the list are required to contact authors privately to request their permission and when published, MEDLAB-L should be credited as the original source.
MEDLAB-L is a vital internet tool for biomedical scientists you cannot ignore. Now that you have the insider information of how to join and use this self-empowering tool, what are you still waiting for?

Sunday, January 11, 2009

Understanding The Use Of PUBMED

Any professional in the medical fraternity who does not know how to use PUMED will find out that optimum search results on medical research on the Internet could not be achieved. Having identified PUBMED as the ultimate search database for medical information on the Internet, biomedical professionals should be shown in a step-by-step guide how to use this wonderful resource.
Learning how to use PUMBED with the necessary tools is the focus of this write up.

Activities you are likely to undertake when using PUBMED include the following:

· Search Pubmed For Author: This is important for you if you already have the name of the author whose reference you want to use. The resource you’ll need to learn how to search for author is

· Simple Subject Search: When you are working with a query or subject that is not complex, the simple subject search tool or techniques is your sure bet. Get it at

· Search For Journal: There are more than 6000 journals listed in PUBMED database. To quickly access the journal of your choice, here is the tool you need:

· Retrieving Citations From A Journal Issue: Citations from issues of journals is important when you are interested in other linked resources to your subject of research by the same author or group of authors. Get the tool to do it at

· Saving Your Search. The simple steps to follow in order to successfully save your search resources is available at
· Searching With MeSH database: The Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is one aspect you must get to be familiar with if you want to conduct a successful search at PUBMED. Here is where medical subjects are listed from where you can select your search category. Find how to search the MeSH database at
· Combining MeSH Terms Using The MeSH database: Sometimes, you need to combine medical subjects terms with certain subjects in the database. Find how to do it at
· Applying Subheadings And Other Features of MeSH: Many other tools and features you can use to achieve search success is found at
· Chemical And Drugs In PUBMED: When you are working on chemicals and drugs, there is a particular section you must head to straight away without wasting time. It is found at
· The Basics Of MeSH : Learn everything you can about medical subject headings at

· Training Manual: If you are not clear about any subject on how to get optimum results from PUBMED, here is a training manual you must get to build your knowledge base. It is absolutely free. Get it at

Monday, January 5, 2009

How To Search For Health Information On The Internet

In a recent study, it was discovered that 80% of individuals who search for health information make use of general search engines like google and yahoo. Are they going to get optimum results? The obvious answer is no.

In the same survey, it was also observed that 64% of the most searched health information is about diseases or medical problems. 51% of Internet users seeking health information search for medical treatment or procedure. 9% search for information on how to quit smoking while 8% search for information on drugs and alcohol.
This article reveals the right Internet tool to use when searching for health information on the Internet and what kind of resources is available in the discovered tool.

It is obvious that the general search engine cannot give optimum information on health related resources on the Internet. The solution to this problem is to look for a government database on health, which is reliable and historic.
Medline Plus ( where to go when searching for health information of any kind on the Internet. This site is a service of the United State's national library of medicine and the national institutes of health.

The database showcases 750 health topics on conditions, diseases and wellness. Prescription tips and over-the-counter medicines, herbs and supplements are also made available.
Medical Doctors and Allied health professionals will find the medical encyclopedia in the site, which include pictures and diagrams very useful. Whenever you want to refresh or remember certain medical terms, the dictionary page, which dwells on spellings and definitions of medical words come very handy.

What about current news about health and press announcements? They are abundant in the site and you can subscribe to it through RSS feed.
If you are bothered about health information in your locality, the page to go is the Go Local section, which provides service for finding local resources for health, related issues.
There is a direct link to PUBMED/MEDLINE and NIH (National Institute Of Health) at the bottom of the home page.

What's more? Over 165 interactive tutorials with slide shows are conspicuously displayed at the upper right side of the home page. If you are interested on studies for new drugs, you will find the information at the clinical trials link. There are also videos of surgical procedures. Talk about more than enough focused health information on the Internet. You can never miss out when you go to MEDLINEPLUS.